Besides making sure that the system works according to the requirements, the most important objective of any testing is to find defects or bugs. It's no good however to simply find defects and just forget about them, a tester must record each defect in detail and ensure that whoever is tasked with correcting the defect knows that it exists!
A simple spreadsheet is a good way to keep a record of defects for small projects but it is more effective if a proper defect management tool such as ClearQuest, Jira or BugZilla is used.
A defect spreadsheet typically consists of a series of columns headed by Defect ID, Defect Headline, Date Detected, Description, Comments, Status and Date Closed. Other fields can be used to suit individual project needs.
by Herb Williams